Fourth of July – Independence Day


LPETTET/Getty Images


1. A History of Independence Day
2. Early Fourth of July Celebrations
3. Fourth of July Fireworks
4. Fourth of July Becomes a Federal Holiday
5. Photo Gallery: The Founding Fathers

The Fourth of July—also known as Independence Day or July 4th—has been a federal holiday in the United States since 1941, but the tradition of Independence Day celebrations goes back to the 18th century and the American Revolution. On July 2nd, 1776, the Continental Congress voted in favor of independence, and two days later delegates from the 13 colonies adopted the Declaration of Independence, a historic document drafted by Thomas Jefferson. From 1776 to the present day, July 4th has been celebrated as the birth of American independence, with festivities ranging from fireworks, parades and concerts to more casual family gatherings and barbecues. The Fourth of July 2021 is on Sunday, July 4, 2021; the federal holiday will be observed on Monday, July 5, 2021.

WATCH: American Revolution Collection on HISTORY Vault

A History of Independence Day

When the initial battles in the Revolutionary War broke out in April 1775, few colonists desired complete independence from Great Britain, and those who did were considered radical.

By the middle of the following year, however, many more colonists had come to favor independence, thanks to growing hostility against Britain and the spread of revolutionary sentiments such as those expressed in the bestselling pamphlet “Common Sense,” published by Thomas Paine in early 1776.

On June 7, when the Continental Congress met at the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, the Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee introduced a motion calling for the colonies’ independence.

Amid heated debate, Congress postponed the vote on Lee’s resolution, but appointed a five-man committee—including Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and Robert R. Livingston of New York—to draft a formal statement justifying the break with Great Britain.

Did you know? John Adams believed that July 2nd was the correct date on which to celebrate the birth of American independence, and would reportedly turn down invitations to appear at July 4th events in protest. Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died on July 4, 1826—the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.

READ MORE: 7 Events That Led to the American Revolution

On July 2nd, the Continental Congress voted in favor of Lee’s resolution for independence in a near-unanimous vote (the New York delegation abstained, but later voted affirmatively). On that day, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail that July 2 “will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival” and that the celebration should include “Pomp and Parade…Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other.”

On July 4th, the Continental Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence, which had been written largely by Jefferson. Though the vote for actual independence took place on July 2nd, from then on the 4th became the day that was celebrated as the birth of American independence.

Early Fourth of July Celebrations

In the pre-Revolutionary years, colonists had held annual celebrations of the king’s birthday, which traditionally included the ringing of bells, bonfires, processions and speechmaking. By contrast, during the summer of 1776 some colonists celebrated the birth of independence by holding mock funerals for King George III as a way of symbolizing the end of the monarchy’s hold on America and the triumph of liberty.

Festivities including concerts, bonfires, parades and the firing of cannons and muskets usually accompanied the first public readings of the Declaration of Independence, beginning immediately after its adoption. Philadelphia held the first annual commemoration of independence on July 4, 1777, while Congress was still occupied with the ongoing war.

George Washington issued double rations of rum to all his soldiers to mark the anniversary of independence in 1778, and in 1781, several months before the key American victory at the Battle of Yorktown, Massachusetts became the first state to make July 4th an official state holiday.

After the Revolutionary War, Americans continued to commemorate Independence Day every year, in celebrations that allowed the new nation’s emerging political leaders to address citizens and create a feeling of unity. By the last decade of the 18th century, the two major political parties—the Federalist Party and Democratic-Republicans—that had arisen began holding separate Fourth of July celebrations in many large cities.

READ MORE: Two Presidents Died on the Same July 4: Coincidence or Something More?

Fourth of July Fireworks

The first fireworks were used as early as 200 BC. The tradition of setting off fireworks on the 4 of July began in Philadelphia on July 4, 1777, during the first organized celebration of Independence Day. Ship’s cannon fired a 13-gun salute in honor of the 13 colonies. The Pennsylvania Evening Post reported: “at night there was a grand exhibition of fireworks (which began and concluded with thirteen rockets) on the Commons, and the city was beautifully illuminated.” That same night, the Sons of Liberty set off fireworks over Boston Common.

Fourth of July Becomes a Federal Holiday

The tradition of patriotic celebration became even more widespread after the War of 1812, in which the United States again faced Great Britain. In 1870, the U.S. Congress made July 4th a federal holiday; in 1941, the provision was expanded to grant a paid holiday to all federal employees.

Over the years, the political importance of the holiday would decline, but Independence Day remained an important national holiday and a symbol of patriotism.

Falling in mid-summer, the Fourth of July has since the late 19th century become a major focus of leisure activities and a common occasion for family get-togethers, often involving fireworks and outdoor barbecues. The most common symbol of the holiday is the American flag, and a common musical accompaniment is “The Star-Spangled Banner,” the national anthem of the United States.

READ MORE: Why We Celebrate July 4 With Fireworks

Photo Gallery: The Founding Fathers


George Washington
Washington oversaw the passage of the Bill of Rights, appointed the first Supreme Court, signed the Jay Treaty with Great Britain and voluntarily stepped down after two terms in office, setting a key precedent.


John Adams

Adams was the only Federalist president ever elected and the first president to live in the White House. As a federalist, Adams favored a loose interpretation of the Constitution with a strong federal government.


Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson s Jefferson oversaw the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase—a massive tract of land that doubled the size of the United States.


James Madison

James Madison The defining event of James Madison's presidency was signing a declaration of war against Great Britain and launching the War of 1812.


James Monroe

In 1820, Monroe signed the Missouri Compromise, which barred slavery north and west of Missouri. He also established the Monroe Doctrine warning Europe that the United States would not tolerate further colonization in the Americas.


John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams won his election by a very narrow margin and his presidency marked a return to partisan politics. Despite political gridlock, Adams did oversee the completion of the Erie Canal.


Andrew Jackson

Jackson supported states' rights and slavery's expansion into new western territories. He used the power of presidential veto more than any previous president, and he pushed through the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the federal government to force Native American tribes from their homelands in states east of the Mississippi River.


Martin Van Buren

Van Buren's one-term presidency was marked by the financial Panic of 1837, which resulted in a severe economic depression, the deepest in U.S. history to that point.


William Henry Harrison

Harrison's presidency was the shortest in U.S. history—just 32 days. He caught a cold on his inauguration day and died of pneumonia a month later.


John Tyler

Tyler was the first Vice President to succeed to the presidency without election and the first U.S. president to face impeachment. The impeachment was unsuccessful, though Tyler was expelled from the Whig Party.

Originally Published: